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英語中的過渡性詞語

來源:藏網整理 作者:fawenzhang 人氣: 發布時間:2018-06-08 19:09
摘要:過渡性詞語(Transitional Expressions)是指那些在 中對上下文起承上啟下作用的詞語,常由副詞、連詞及一些詞組構成。一篇語言流暢、脈絡清晰的 離不開作者對過渡性詞語的恰當運用。相關

過渡性詞語(Transitional Expressions)是指那些在 中對上下文起承上啟下作用的詞語,常由副詞、連詞及一些詞組構成。一篇語言流暢、脈絡清晰的 離不開作者對過渡性詞語的恰當運用。相關調查顯示,中國學生對英語中的過渡性詞語的掌握情況不容樂觀,很多學生知道并能準確運用的過渡性詞語不超過10個。因此,熟悉和掌握大學英語中的過渡性詞語對同學們來說迫在眉睫,這對提高英語寫作水平將會起到非常關鍵的作用。

過渡性詞語表達的是句與句或段與段之間的某 邏輯關系。大學英語中常用的過渡性詞語可分為以下幾類:

一、表示并列、遞進和強調關系的過渡性詞語

主要有also, again, and, and then, besides, in addition(此外), additionally(此外), furthermore(此外,而且), moreover(而且), especially(尤其), in particular( 別)等。例如:

1. Students who work part-time earn extra money; moreover, they learn a lot about the society they live in. 做兼職的學生不僅能掙些外快,而且還能多了解一些他們所處的社會。

2. Mr. Smith displeased the hostess. He smoked too much; further鄄more, he dropped ash all over the rug. 史密斯先生讓女主人很不高興,因為他煙抽得太多了,而且,還把煙灰掉了一地毯。

3. You must make clear all the people’s names who attend this meeting. In addition, you should record all the speeches during the meeting. 你必須弄清所有與會者的姓名,此外,會議期間你還要記錄下所有的發言。

二、表示先后次序、時間和頻次的過渡性詞語

主要有firstly, secondly, lastly, finally, eventually, at first, at last, first of all, in the first place, prior to(在……之前), formerly(從前), previously(以前), presently(目前), at present, so far, for the time being(目前), later on, then, soon, shortly, before long, afterwards(后來,在這之后), since then, thereafter(在那之后), meanwhile(其間), in the meantime(與此同時), at the same time, simultaneously(同時地), immediately, as soon as, occasionally(偶爾), frequently等。例如:

1. Prior to the Independence War, the United States was an English colony. 獨立戰爭之前,美國是英國的殖民地。

2. You left before eleven. What did you do afterwards? 你是十一點離開的,之后你做了什么?

3. On the opening day all tickets are sold a dollar; thereafter they’ll be sold two dollars. 第一天,票價是一美元,之后將會售兩美元。

4. The doctor will see you again next week. Meanwhile, you must rest as much as possible. 醫生下周還會給你看病,在此期間,你必須盡可能地多休息。

5. The game will be broadcast simultaneously on TV and radio. 比賽將同時在電視和廣播中進行轉播。

三、表示比較、對照和對比關系的過渡性詞語

主要有on one hand ... on the other hand, as well as, similarly, likewise(同樣地), otherwise(否則,不然;除此以外), by the same to-ken, as opposed to, by contrast, in (total) contrast to(與……相比), (be) contrary to, on the contrary, conversely(相反地,反過來), by comparison(多用于句首), by / in comparison (with sb/sth)(與……相比較)等。例如:

1. Her second marriage was likewise unhappy. 她的第二次婚姻也不幸福。

2. There was some music playing upstairs. Otherwise the house was silent. 樓上有些音樂聲。除此之外,房子里靜悄悄的。

3. Contrary to our expectation, the Miami Heat won the game. 與我們所期待的相反,邁阿密熱火隊贏了這場比賽。

4. A: It must have been terrible. 那一定很可怕。

B: On the contrary, I enjoyed very minute. 恰恰相反,我享受每一分鐘。

5. The poverty of her childhood stands in total contrast to her luxurious life in Hollywood. 她在好萊塢生活的奢華與她童年時的貧窮形成了鮮明的對照。

6. By comparison, expenditure on education increased last year. 比較起來,去年的教育支出增加了。

7. The tallest buildings in London are small in comparison with New York’s skyscrapers. 與紐約的摩天大樓相比,倫敦最高的建筑也顯得矮小了。

四、表示因果關系的過渡性詞語

主要有because, so, because of, accordingly(相應地,因此), as a result, consequently(結果), hence = for this reason, therefore(因此), thus(以此方式,如此;因此), due to(由于), owing to(由于)等。例如:

1. The present birth rate is increasing and the death rate is decreasing. Therefore, the world’s population is growing at a frightening pace.目前,出生率上升,死亡率下降,因此世界人口數量正以驚人的速度增長。

2. I missed the train and consequently was late for school. 我錯過了那趟火車,因此上學遲到了。

3. The cost of materials rose sharply last year. Accordingly, we were forced to increase our prices. 去年材料成本大幅度提高,因此我們被迫提價。

4. We did not win the game. Thus, we will not meet John’s team in next round. 我們沒有贏得這場比賽。因此,我們 不能與約翰的隊伍在下一輪相遇了。

5. Owing to all my classmates’ effort, our class won the competition. 由于所有同學的努力,在這次競賽中,我們班獲勝。

6. That Shelley became a poet may have been due to his mother’s influence. 雪萊成為詩人可能是由于受他母親的影響。

五、表示列舉和解釋說明關系的過渡性詞語

主要有a case in point(恰當的例子), namely = that is(那 是), for example, for instance, specifically, such as, in my view, as for me, as far as ... be concerned( ……而言), after all, in any case等。例如:

1. Only one person can complete the task, namely you. 只有一個人能完成這項任務,那 是你。

2. As far as I’m concerned, I don’t like that kind of skirt. 我而言,我不喜歡那樣的裙子。

六、表示讓步和轉折關系的過渡性詞語

主要有for all this, in spite of, despite, nevertheless(盡管如此,然而), even though, although, nonetheless(盡管如此), regardless of(不管), but, though, whereas(用以比較或對比兩個事實,表示"然而"), however, even so等。例如:

1. Defeat was obvious; even so, the players continued to try their best to win. 盡管已很明顯落敗了,但隊員們仍全力以赴。

2. In spite of all his efforts he failed. 盡管他很努力,他仍舊失敗了。

3. Some of the studies show positive results, whereas others do not. 一些研究顯示了肯定的結果,而另一些卻不然。

4. He’s charming; nevertheless, I don’t quite trust him. 盡管他很迷人,可是我卻不十分信任他。

七、總結、重復和概述性的過渡性詞語

主要有generally speaking, in general, in brief(簡言之,總而言之), in short, in summary, in conclusion, in essence, in other words, to sum up, to summarize, all in all(從各方面考慮,總的說來), by and large(總體上), boil down to sth(歸結為……), on the whole, as has been noted, as we have seen, as mentioned earlier等。例如:

1. In brief, you realized your aims. 總而言之,你實現了你的目標。

2. All in all, it had been a great success. 總的說來,那是個巨大的成功。

3. By and large, I enjoyed my time at school. 總的說來,我在學校很開心。

4. In the end, what it all boils down to is money, or the lack of it. 問題的癥結是錢,或者說是缺錢。

牛刀小試

請從下列方框里的詞或詞組中選出最合適的一個完成句子。

on the contrary furthermore therefore in short

1. We were tired and hungry, and ______ eager to reach our destination as soon as possible.

2. When a student challenged his theory, the professor was not displeased as we expected; _______, he encouraged us to think independently.

3. That play is depressing. The plot is weird and the characterization is poor. _______, it is a failure.

答案及解析

1. therefore。句意:我們又累又餓,因此急于盡可能快地到達目的地。分析:本句的前半部分"We were tired and hungry"是后半部分"eager to reach our destination as soon as possible"的原因,因此空格部分需要一個表示因果關系的過渡詞語,故選therefore,意為"因此(for that reason)"。

2. on the contrary。句意:當學生挑戰這位教授的理論時,他并沒有像我們預想的那樣不高興,相反他還鼓勵我們要獨立思考。分析:空格后"he encouraged us to think independently"表達的是與空格前"the professor was not displeased as we expected"相對比的一 相反的情況,故選on the contrary(恰恰相反)。

3. In short。句意:那個劇本讓人感到沉悶。它情節怪誕,人物塑造單一。簡而言之,那是個失敗的劇作。分析:空格后"it is a failure"是對前面所述情況的一個總結,故用in short,由于其被用于句首,"in"首字母要大寫。

責任編輯:系統管理員

標簽:過渡性     責任編輯:fawenzhang

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